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Rabu, 31 Juli 2013

Letters to Philemon

Exegetical Paper of Paul's Letter to Philemon
Name : Naomi Fortuna

  1. My Pre-Understanding of the text
First, my preunderstanding of the text, I heard some sermon which talk about a slave whose name is Onesimus run away from his master and become Christian because of Paul's ministry in the prison. The letter of Philemon pictures out about the relationship between a Christian master and a Christian slave (especially in the context of a run away slave and forgiveness from a master to a slave).
In this exegese paper, I try to reconstruct the problem behind the letter by reading this text by study the words, find the support from other Paul's writings especially his teaching related to the relation between master and slave (Collosians, Galatian). I also try to search the data about slavery in NT (and just a small portion of OT), and compare this data with the context of slavery in first century Roman's society world.
  1. Type of the Genre and Outline of the Letter to Philemon
Type of Genre
The book of philemon is a personal open letter from Paul and Timothy, addressed to the family of Philemon (Philemon, Apphia and Archippus) and the church that meets at their homes.
Outline of the letter
  • (1-3) Opening Greetings
  • (4-7) Thanks Giving and Prayer
  • (8-22) Paul’s requests to Philemon
    • (8-16) Appeal to accept Onesimus no longer as a slave but a brother in Christ
    • (17-21) Paul will take the responsibility for Onesimus’ wrong doing
    • (22) Another request
  • (23-25) Closing Greetings and Benediction

  1. Literary Context
Paul's writtings about Master and Slave relationship
We can find about Paul's thinking of the slavery institution in his writing to the churches. The similarities that we found in his writing is he exhorts the slaves to be obedient to their masters. The spread of God's word at that time produce influx number of people of "pagan" converts1. I think there is a high probability that numbers of slaves converted because in most of Paul's letter (Collosians, Ephesians, Corinthians, Galatians and his personal letter to Philemon, Titus and Timothy) he speaks about the relation between slave and master after they became Christians. I think this topic is one of important issues at that time so that Paul mentioned about it in his letters to the churches.
In his writings Paul describes of some similar qualities required for a Christian servant : obedient to their master with fear and trembling, in singleness of their heart, as unto Christ; doing service with good will, as to the Lord, and not to men (Eph 6:5-9); serving not with eye service, fearing God (Col 3:22-25). Paul also asked the Christian master to have the same attitude. In his letter to Timothy (1Ti_6:1-2) Paul teaches that the slaves should count their own masters worthy of all honor, so that the name and teaching of God may not be blasphemed. For slaves who work for Christian master, Paul reminded them not to despise their master, but rather to serve them in good service in love. In his letter to Titus (Ti 2:9-10), Paul teaches that slave should be subject to their own masters, well-pleasing in all things, not speaking against them, not stealing, but showing all good faith, that they may adorn the doctrine of our Savior God in all things.
Something new in Paul's concept about the relation is to unite this different class or social divisions to become one in Christ. In the book of Galatian he wrote Gal_3:28 ".. there is no slave nor freeman; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. " And to Colossians he wrote Col 3:11 "where there is no slave or freeman, but Christ is all things and in all." and in Corinthian 1Co 12:13 "For also we all were baptized by one Spirit into one body, whether slaves or free" Christian formed contrast communities. Master and slaves were expected to pray together and sit down in the same table as equal. But still this contrast community needs order to live out the meaning of freedom and redemption in Christ. In his letter to Corinthians, Paul reminds the church to abide the same calling where in he was called, including for Christians who are slave. Paul was not attack the institution of slavery, but within Christian assemblies slaves held equal status .
Slave/Servant in the Gospels and Acts
Jesus used the relation between servant and master in his parables and teachings. We can find it on the parable about unmerciful servant (teaching about forgiveness). parable of the talent (about the faithful and the wicked servants who entrusted the property of their master), Mat 18:21-35, the parable of the tenant Mat 25:14-30, parable of the great banquet Mark 12:1-12, we see of a punishment give by the master to an unwatchful servant Luk 12:47, the duty of a slave of servitude in parable Luk 17:7,9 . Jesus used the word slave of sin for describing someone who practicing sin and bondage by sin in John 8:34. About the different level of slave and master (Mat_10:24, John 13:16, John 15:20),
The institution of slave/servant-master in Jesus time is common in the community. Mark 14:47 & 69 informs us that the high priest at that time has servants who work for him. The slave woman of highpriest, who talked with Peter at the night Jesus arrested, worked as a door keeper (John 18:17). A Roman centurion, who has a sick servant and ready to die, beseech Jesus to heal his servant who is dear to him (Luk 7:1-10). Luke in the book of Acts mentioned that Cornelius, a Roman centurion on Caesarea has servants for his household (Act 10:7).

Slaves in Old Testament
In the Genesis we can find the word "slave" in 52 verses (LIT Version), and "slaves" in 19 verses in Genesis. The use of this words in Genesis is more frequent than of other books in the OT. The institution of slavery, servant/bondman-master relationship is already established a long time ago in human history. The first used of the word "slave or servant" in the OT is when Noah cursed Canaan because of what Ham, the father of Canaan, did to him "And he said, Cursed be Canaan. He shall be a slave of slaves to his brothers. " Gen 9:25 (LITV)
The Law in OT protected the right of slaves: punished the master who put him to death, provided liberation of the slave whose master maimed him or chased him away with blows, or slave who natoriously ill-used.

  1. Historical-Cultural Context
Slavery in Roman World
In Romans world a Roman matron asking “Is a slave a man?”, because slave belonged to the class of things2. Technically Roman slaves were the property, the chattels, of their owners, held in a state of total subjection3. Varo's word: “a kind of tool that can speak”. Romans treat their slave cruelty. To scecth the image of slavery at Roman's time we can see from what Keith Bradley stated in BBC history4 :
"Those who fought against Rome knew that they could be sent to the slave-market if taken as a prisoner-of-war. They are often said to have killed themselves rather than face the prospect of enslavement - a clear indictment of the horrors involved in the sudden transition from freedom to slavery. Images of the vanquished committing suicide are still visible on the Column of Trajan in Rome."

How people come to slavery? People come to slavery because of many reason. Some of them are war captives, offspring slaves to adulthood, unwanted birth of free person, vulnerable people who are kidnapped by bandits and pirates. A Roman citizen could not sell himself into slavery, but some one could "contract" himself to become a slave for a limited time, giving up his rights as a free man in return of money5.
Servitude was the central task of a slave. They must be available at all times and had to labor subjet to the master's will. If the slaves get violence from their masters, they can take refuge in a temple or at a divine statue, using the ancient right of asylum as a protection againts their abusive master. The punishment of a criminal slave by magisterial judgements can be crucifixion, burning alive, or being torn apart in the arena by wild beast.6

Run Away Slave
To free from the burden and violation caused by slavery, the thinking of runaway from their master is frequently in the slaves thought. This is what slaves did think and do in large numbers. The main cause is abuse (escaping from a beating or other abuse from the master of fellow slaves) 7. If a slave is run away, it was easy for them to blend into the population while attempting to escape detection8 But they will face slave-catchers, Roman's hired professional to hunt down runaways, so slaves on the run were always in danger and if caught could be savagely punished9. Most run away slaves are young men between the age of sixteen to thirty five10 .
The punishment for the runaway varies from put to death, misery, torture, chains, great difficulties when they shipped back to their master. On the run, life can be hard ordisastrous for the runaway: he could be died (burning or by knife) in his flight, having his hands or feet cut off, or crucified alive, or drowning to the sea. This possibilities will be in their thinking when they take the radical step of runaway from their master.

5. Content of The Letter

a. (1-3) Opening Greetings
Authors of the letter
This letter is a short personal letter from Paul and Timothy. The way that Paul identified himself, he used the word "a prisoner of Jesus Christ". This is the only one letter that in his greeting he used the term "a prisoner of Christ" to identify himself. A prisoner of Christ means that someone bound or a captive for the sake of Christ. Mostly in Paul's letter greetings, he used the term "apostle". Only in his letter to Philippians, I & II Thessalonicans and Philemon, Paul also did not use the word "apostle". In other personal letter as the letter to Timothy and Titus, Paul used his office of "apostle" in his greeting.
Timothy in this letter identified as "our brother". Timothy is Paul's co-worker. Paul wrote some letters together with Timothy as II Corinthians, Philippians, Colossians, I & II Thessalonicans. In his personal letter to Timothy, Paul greet him as "my true son in the faith" and "my dear son". In his letter to the Philippians, Paul testified about Timothy as the only reliable man to him that have genuine interest to the Philipians church. From this letter, there is possibility that Philemon, Apphia, Archippus and the church of their house also know Timothy as Paul's co-worker.

Place of Paul written the letter
There is a probability that the letter to Philemon is written by Paul in Rome. In Acts 28: 20, he was in the prison at Rome. Paul stated to the leaders of the Jews the reason of his chain is because of the hope of Israel. Acts 28:30 describes for us that for the whole two years Paul stayed at his own rented house and welcomed all who came to see him.
The possibility that this letter written in Rome supported by the information from this letter that Paul met Onesimus and became Paul's son in Christ while he was in chains. The condition of his imprisontment in Acts 28:30 gave Paul opportunity to listen to Onesimus life story and build the relation so that Onesimus become useful for him in the work of the gospel.

The Recipient of the Letter
The name of Philemon and Apphia is only mention here in this letter. We can not find their name on other Paul's letter. The name of Archippus mentioned by Paul in the book of Colossians (Col 4:17) . This means that Archippus is one of the members of the church of Colosse. The name of Onesimus also mentioned by Paul in his letter Colossians. Paul adressed Onesimus as "one of you", the same as the he addressed to Epaphras in his letter to Colossians . Onesimus in this letter has a task together with Tychicus to speak about all things which happen to Paul to the church (Col 4:9 ) .
From this letter, we have the probability that Philemon, Apphia and Archippus is one family. Philemon and Apphia is husband and wife, and Archippus is their son. These three names mentioned in unity as the recipients of this letter together with the church that meets at their home which scetchs out of a family who open their house as a home for the church to meet and worship regularly.
In the book of Romans Paul greet Priscilla and Aquilla and the church that meets at their house (Roman 16:3-5; I Cor 16:19). In the letter of Collosians we also find other name who has church in his house "Salute the brethren which are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the church which is in his house." Col_4:15 . The house churches have important role for the growth of Christianity at that time.

b. (4-7) Thanks Giving and Prayer
In his thanksgiving and prayer for Philemon, we know that Paul was informed about Philemon's love and faith. Philemon's love have refreshed the hearts of the Lord's people. This term "refreshed the heart" repeated by Paul on verse 20. As the leader of the church, Philemon opened his house for the church meeting and he showed his love and shared good things toward the saints which refresh the people of God.

c. (8-22) Paul’s requests to Philemon for Onesimus
(8-16) Appeal to accept Onesimus no longer as a slave but as a brother in Christ
  • Paul does not to use authority but appeal on the basis of love
Paul has authority to give command to Philemon about what is proper. The reason why Paul is ought to do that is because they are partner, fellow worker in the work of the gospel and Philemon owe his very self to Paul. But Paul did not use his authority. He prefer to appeal on the basis of love. He identified himself as an old man. This is the only letter that Paul sees himself as an aged man. He combined the words "old man" and "prisoner of Jesus Christ" to describe his condition. Why he used this terms? The posibility is this describes about his weak physically condition because of age and the chains which will limit his access and mobility. And the help from Onesimus is useful to ease his condition.

  • Who is Onesimus?
From this verse we also informed about the former condition of Onesimus which is "useless" (NIV), or "unprofitable" (KJV) for Philemon. But now Onesimus become "useful" or "profitable" both to Paul and Philemon. The name of Onesimus in Greek Ŏnēsimos : profitable; a Christian11.
In this letter Paul called Onesimus as "my son" (my child- ESV), "my very heart" which describe of his very close relation to Onesimus. On all of Paul's letters, not all of his fellow workers he addressed with father-son relationship. Paul used the term "my dearly beloved son" addressed to Timothy and "my own son" to Titus.
Does Onesimus have different ethnic from Philemon? How did Onesimus become a slave? Probably yes he has a different ethnicity with Philemon, because a Roman citizen could not sell himself into slavery. From some literatures we know that the main source of ancient slaves are from warfare, piracy, bridgandage, the international slave trade, kidnapping, infant exposure, natural reproduction of the exixting slave population and the punishment of criminals12. Some of slaves has education background which enhancing their value13. For example, Phlegon of Tralles, who wrote history and other matters during the time of emperor Hadrian14.
In his letter to the Collosians we know that Onesimus was being sent to the Collosians together with Tychicus to tell about everything that happen to Paul in prison. This means that Onesimus knows about all the recent news about Paul, and he is reliable to tell what was. From this account, I guess that Onesimus is an educated slave who is reliable to do this important task from Paul. Paul set Onesimus' name together with Tychicus, Paul's fellow worker. In Paul's letters we are informed that Tychicus is one of Paul's reliable person to speak about his condition to the church (Act 20:4, Eph 6:21, Col 4:7, II Tim 4:12, Tit 3:12).

  • What is Onesimus Problem?
From this letter we are also informed that Onesimus is separated for a while with Philemon. How a slave can separate from his master? Are there any possibility that Onesimus run away from Philemon? What is the reason of a slave run away from his master? The phrase "separated from you for a little while" means not a long time. Some of the translation use "a short time" (GNB), "for a while" (NKJV), and "for a little while" (NLT). I guess that the incident was happen not very long time ago, but it is near. I guess that the church was already established in the house of Philemon so that the church's members know about all the story.
From this letter we identified the probability that Onesimus has done something wrong to Philemon which made him runaway from Philemon house. before which made Paul wrote this letter to reconcile the problem. Some translations use : "he has wronged you" (NASB, NKJV, ESV) or "If he damaged anything" (The Message). Another phrase "owes you anything" is used by most of the translations. We find here that Onesimus has a problem with Philemon, and this problem is a serious problem that make he decide to runaway from Philemon. To take a decision to runaway at that time was a radical step which has a lot of consequences that could threaten his life.
The possibilities are that he damaged Philemon's property or he steal money or precious property of Philemon. If Onesimus knows that Philemon is a good person, loveable and friendly, he will also know that Philemon will give forgive his fault (damage things, etc). So I think the possibility is that he take something from Philemon's house (for his own benefit) and runaway from Philemon's house. If he met Paul in Rome, it means that he had runaway to Rome from the city of Colossae (Philemon’s place). Theft was a constant possibility and endemic in the society at that time15. To take the risky and harmful decision to runaway, Onesimus possibly could be steal a large number of money or precious possessions of Philemon.

  • Paul appeal Philemon to forgive Onesimus
There are three conditions that Paul asked Philemon to accept Onesimus back: as a dear brother, as a fellow man, and welcome him as you would welcome Paul. This concept is a very radical concept at that time. And slave has no right as a person infront of law, they belong to a class of things in the society at that time.
But the practice of Christianity at that time is counter culture and explicitly reversed the Rome's policy. In Galatian 3:27-28 "There cannot be Jew nor Greek, there is no slave nor freeman, there is no male and female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. " Christianity formed a counter culture community which unite ethnic/cultural/religious group, social/class division, gender dominantion16.
In this book Paul even more radical with asking of forgiveness from Philemon to a runaway slave who has done something wrong. Good News Bible translate this verse Phil 1:16 "And now he is not just a slave, but much more than a slave: he is a dear brother in Christ. How much he means to me! And how much more he will mean to you, both as a slave and as a brother in the Lord!". NKJV translates it "no longer as a slave but more than a slave—a beloved brother, especially to me but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord."
From this verse we can interpret that, Philemon is asked by Paul to forgive Onesimus, receive him back forever. The probability from this verse is that Paul accept Onesimus back as a slave, but with the transformation of relationship between them not as slave master relationship but as brothers in the Lord. The institution of slavery is still on its place with all the responsibilities within but the relations between master and slave become change with Christian brotherhood relationship. This will impact the way Philemon treat Onesimus, and impact the respect and subjection that Onesimus gives to Philemon. This also consistent with Paul's teaching about slavery in Collosians, Ephesians, Corinthians, Galatians and his personal letter to Philemon, Titus and Timothy.

(17-21) Paul will take the responsibility for Onesimus’ wrong doing
  • The redeeming action : "I will pay it back
Paul also stated that "I will pay it back—not to mention that you owe me your very self. " (NIV), "I will repay it. And I won’t mention that you owe me your very soul!" (NLT). Paul take the responsibility of the fault that Onesimus has made. The phrase that he used "charge it to me", means that he takes the redeeming action to release Onesimus from his debts to Philemon. This remind us to the work of Jesus Christ who reconciled us from the wrath of God caused by our sin. The word reconcile used of the divine work of redemption, denoting that act of redemption insofar as God Himself, by taking upon Himself our sin and becoming an atonement17. This is the concept of reconciliation and forgiveness : the need of some one who does whatever it takes to redeem (buy back or by exchange) something or someone to establish a peaceful condition. In this letter Paul gives the example of this work of reconciliation which he has been reflecting from the example of Christ.
In Hebrew the word redeem (redeemer is sometimes translated "kinsman redeemer") means an act of defence of another member of their own family who had been wronged or was facing some danger or threat18. It is used for the acts of bringing a murderer into justice, helping a family member out of debt of slavery, and keeping a brother's family name alive19. In Eph 1:7, I Pet 1:18-20, we have our redemption through Jesus Christ blood, He forgives our sins. Jesus is the ransom, by his precious blood He redeem us from our bondage and debt of sin and reconciled our relationship with God the Father.
When Paul said "welcome him as you would welcome me", I am interpret it that when Onesimus comes to Philemon, Philemon sees Paul in Onesimus and all the assurance that Paul gives that all his fault is already paid. This is also a reflection of how the Father accepted us by the redemption work of Christ, God sees Christ His Son in us. He will not punish us of all our sin but reconcile with us because of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, His Son isH.

(22) Another request: "prepare a guest room for me...”
At this time Paul was still waiting for the result process of his case whether he will be released from prison or punished by the Roman's government. In this letter we see the positive confidence of Paul that he will be released from his chains. He said "Prepare a guest room for me, because I hope to be restored to you in answer to your prayers." (Philemon 1:22). There is possibility that his case is clearer that he will be released. This is close to what Paul said to the church of Philippians "for I know that through your prayers and God’s provision of the Spirit of Jesus Christ what has happened to me will turn out for my deliverance." (Phil 1:19). But in the letter of Philippians we know that the end of his case by Roman's government at that time still not clear. It could be death or life (Phil 1:20-26).

  1. (23-25) Closing Greetings and Benediction
All of the the five names mentioned in this letter can be found in Paul's letter to Collosians (4:10-12). Paul called Epaphras "fellow servant, a faithful minister of Christ" and he always prays for colossians church that they will grow mature in spirituality" (Col 1:17, 4:12). In the letter to Philemon, Paul called Epaphras as "fellowprisoner in Christ Jesus". About Mark, Paul said that Mark is Barnabas' cousin (Col 4:10) and he is very useful for the ministry (II Tim 4:11).
From Paul's letter to Collosians we know that Luke is a physician, and in II Tim 4:11, Luke is the only one who stay with Paul when some of his fellow workers is gone. In this letter and the letter to Colossians, Paul greets Demas as a fellow worker. But in his second letter to Timothy we know that Demas deserted Paul and gone to Thessalonica because he loves the things of this present world (II Tim 4:10). This implies that Paul wrote his second letter to Timothy later than he wrote to Philemon.
We find that some of the people which Paul greets at this three letters (Philemon, Collosians and II Timothy) are similar. Three names at least mention in this three letter : Mark, Demas and Luke.

  1. Summary & Conclusion
The theme of this letter is "forgiveness" and "reconciliation". Paul does whatever it takes to redeem (buy back or by exchange) Onesimus, a run away slave, to reconcile the broken relation between Philemon and Onesimus.

Reconstructing the problem and the solution
From this letter we try to reconstruct the problem behind this letter and find some probabilities inside:
  • Onesimus is a slave of Philemon
  • Onesimus was separated (departed, go away) from Philemon.
    • The slave has no freedom to be departed from his master. This implies that Onesimus has been run away from Philemon
  • Onesimus , as a slave, has done something wrong to Philemon, his master
    • because he is run away
    • because he owe or debt something from Philemon's family
    • Onesimus has obligation to pay it back to Philemon of what he has done
  • Paul met Onesimus in the prison
    • This prison is in Rome where Paul can meet people in the house he rent, Onesimus meets Paul in this prison
    • Onesimus become Christian under Paul's ministry while Paul was in chains
    • Not only he becomes a believer and a disciple of Paul, Onesimus becomes very dear to Paul
    • Onesimus helps Paul while he was in chains
    • There is transformation in Onesimus life from "useless/unprofitable" become "useful/profitable"
    • in his letter to collosians Paul stated onesimus as
      • "a faithful and beloved brother", "one of you"
      • Together with Tychicus, they shall make known unto the churches all things which are done in the prison.
  • Paul's relation to Philemon
    • Paul and Timothy know the family members
    • Philemon is Paul's partner in the ministry-fellow worker
    • Paul has spiritual authority to order Philemon what he ought to do...."Confident of your obedience, knowing that you will do even more than I ask"
    • Philemon is converted in the ministry of Paul "take your place in helping me"...."not to mention that you owe me your very self." ..
    • Paul is confident that he will be release from prison "Prepare a guest room for me,"

  • Paul appeals for reconciled relationship
    • transformation relation from slave master relation to eternal brotherhood relations. "have him back forever"...'no longer as a slave, but as a dear brother" "as a fellow man and as a brother in the Lord."
    • "welcome him as you would welcome me"
  • Paul involved the concern of the community of believers (the church) toward this problem
  • The meaning of Forgiveness & Reconciliation
    • Forgive something wrong someone did in the past
    • Philemon has authority to punish according to Roman law-but he has to put aside his right and forgive Philemon even to respect him as a dear brother

  1. Application
  • The meaning of forgiveness and reconciliation in the ministry
In Christian ministry we see the conflict within the church. Someone said that whereever the church established, there will be conflict. From this letter we learn that in the midst of conflict we need people who do the work of reconciliation. We need some one who suffer whatever it takes to redeem (buy back or by exchange) something or someone to establish a peaceful condition.
As people of God, we are called to response to God's way of redemption to live a redemptive life in our daily life. In this letter, the case of conflict between Philemon and Onesimus, Paul gives us example of live a redemptive living in daily life. In our daily life, may be we face a conflict with our friends, etc. Or we also face that some one that a long time ago make a fault or wrong doing in our life. From this letter we learn that SomeOne already stand there to reconcile us and pay the debts. The same thing I think Jesus Christ will said this to us when some one need our forgiveness "If he has done you any wrong or owes you anything, charge it to Me.... I will pay it backyou owe me your very self to Me.". So, forgiveness is a possible way, not impossible! Forgive your brother or sister in Christ who hurt you, see Jesus who stand between you and them..

  1. Christopher Wright, Mission of God's People, (Grand Raphid: Zondervan, 2010)
  2. Henri Daniel-Rops, Daily Life in the Time of Jesus, (Michigan: Servant Books, 1962),
  3. Professor Keith Bradley, BBC History, 2011.
  4. Robert Knapp, Invisible Roman, (London: Profile Book LTD, 2011)
  5. Margareth EW-Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion: A-N. Ed Junius P Rodriguez,(Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007)
  6. Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study New Testament (Chattanooga: AMG publisher, 1992)
  7. J.A Harrill, Dictionary of NT Background, ed. Craig A. Evans & Stanley E Porter (Downers Grove:Intervarsity Press, 2000)
  8. S.S Bartchy, Dictionary of the Later NT and Its Development, ed. Ralph P Martin, Peter H Davids ( Downers Grove:Intervarsity Press, 1997)
  9. John M Prior, Integration, Isolation or Deviation: Reading Galatians 3:27-28 in Indonesia Today, Mission Studies 27 (2010)

1Christopher Wright, Mission of God's People, (Grand Raphid: Zondervan, 2010) p.36.
2Henri Daniel-Rops, Daily Life in the Time of Jesus, (Michigan: Servant Books, 1962), p. 140
3Professor Keith Bradley, BBC History, 2011
5Robert Knapp, Invisible Roman, (London: Profile Book LTD, 2011) p.132
6Ibid., p.138
7Ibid., p.157
8Ibid., p.130
9Keith Bradley, op. cit.

10Margareth EW-Cleveland, Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion: A-N. Ed Junius P Rodriguez,(Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), p.259.

11Spiros Zodhiates, The Complete Word Study New Testament (Chattanooga: AMG publisher, 1992), p. 52 (study helps)
12J.A Harrill, Dictionary of NT Background, ed. Craig A. Evans & Stanley E Porter (Downers Grove:Intervarsity Press, 2000) p. 1125
13S.S Bartchy, Dictionary of the Later NT and Its Development, ed. Ralph P Martin, Peter H Davids ( Downers Grove:Intervarsity Press, 1997) p. 1098
14Robert Knapp, op. cit., p. 127
15Robert Knapp, op. cit., p.153
16John M Prior, Integration, Isolation or Deviation: Reading Galatians 3:27-28 in Indonesia Today, Mission Studies 27 (2010), p 71-90.
17Spiros Zodhiates, op. cit., p. 913
18Christopher Wright, op. cit., p.98

19Ibid., p.98

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